A household name in China, Alibaba became known to the world when its IPO on NYSE in 2014 claimed the record of the world’s largest IPO ever. Founded in 1999 by a small group of entrepreneurs led by Jack Ma, Alibaba initially served as a website helping small Chinese manufactures and exporter sell products to buyers from overseas. Over the last 17 years, the company has grown into a multifaceted, multinational organization that spans a wide range of industries and functions, from e-commerce to entertainment, from finance to logistics. The company’s rise has not only transformed the global e-Commerce landscape, but also demonstrated significant potential to shape economies and societies both within and beyond China. This 2016 case explores the company’s core business model and key success factors, discusses the diversity of the company’s portfolio as well as related companies and sectors in global markets, investigates its opportunities and challenges, and analyzes the implications of the company’s scale, reach, and capability for the long-term prosperity and sustainability of society.